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In 1989, a man named Joseph Popp sent 20,000 diskettes containing an app to measure the risk of contracting AIDS to AIDS researchers in 90 countries. These floppy disks also contained ransomware. This malware, called "digital AIDS" by various security researchers, went to sleep after it was installed on the computer and was activated after the computer restarted 90 times. After encrypting the file types that were widely used at the time, it demanded a ransom of between $189 and $378 as a license fee.